Are Brown Apples Good For You
Edward R. Forte
November 24, 2021
Pears, bananas, avocados, eggplants and potatoes can also undergo enzymatic browning, because they, like apples, contain phenols.Slicing (or biting into) an apple allows the phenols and enzymes that are normally kept separate by the plant’s cell structure to commingle.Enzymes are the sort of lever or pulley of the biological world–they make jobs (reactions) that should be impossible much easier to accomplish, and they never get tired!Sometimes the results of these reactions are undesirable, like enzymatic browning in cut fruits, but enzymes are key in many foods that are important to our American culture too!Not to mention this very same enzymatic browning reaction contributes to the desirable color of tea, coffee, and raisins.Enzymes interact with other molecules by acting much like a puzzle piece, so shape means everything; once they’ve lost it, poof!You may know that adding lemon juice to sliced apples is a common way to prevent browning.I’ve worked up a little guide (below) for some at-home ideas to stop or slow this reaction from ruining your fruit salad or guacamole.Works for apples, bananas, pears, peaches, grapes, potatoes, eggplant, and avocados.Some people recommend dunking in water, then dredging in dry powdered or granulated sugar.Antioxidants: This is the method most commonly used in the food industry to prevent browning on pre-cut apple slices.It’s preferred because the protection it offers can last a long time (though it is not permanent) and the flavor is relatively mild and citrusy.You can replicate this method at home by dissolving a Vitamin C tablet in water and dunking your fresh cut fruits and veggies.OR, if you’re not interested in emptying your medicine cabinet of its (probably expensive) contents, here is what I think is the smartest combination of the above principles.Use apple (or orange juice, if you don’t mind the flavor) that is fortified with Vitamin C (and calcium, if you can get it).I’ve eaten Red Delicious apples before that were brown on the other side before I even finished eating them!By the same token, don’t set your sliced bananas by the heater; warm cozy temps (up to about 104F) make the enzymes work even faster.I used this technique in my post “buffalo blue pulled turkey sliders with a crisp celery apple salad“. .
Apple slices turned brown
Is it OK to eat cut apples that are turning brown?Enzymes and compounds that the cell had kept separate from each other suddenly mix together.Add some oxygen in the air to the equation and the resulting chemical reaction leaves us with this brown color.The enzymatic browning can only happen at a pH between 5 and 7, so lemon juice, which comes in at a pH of 2, will stop it in its tracks.An easy way to do this is to store them in a bowl of cold water.Other foods and future apples.Apple brown? .
Are Brown Apple Slices Safe to Eat?
Undoubtedly, apples will probably be a staple on your holiday fruit and cheese platters this season, or even as a key ingredient in your kids’ lunch boxes.And while we love putting the spotlight on crisp, ripe apples during fall, the fruit (unfortunately) has one cosmetic flaw: enzymatic browning.When you add oxygen into the mix with the damaged cells, a chemical reaction occurs that changes the polyphenols and produces a brown pigment.To put it simply, apples brown when the flesh of the fruit is exposed to oxygen, altering its color, flavor, scent, and in some cases, nutritional value.Lemon or Citrus Juice - Any liquid containing citric acid will stop the enzyme and prevent browning because it brings the apple’s pH levels down.Bonus Tip: Don’t ever put apple slices near copper or iron because these metals speed up the browning process.Even if you’re the most picky or sluggish eater, we hope you find solace in the fact that you can absolutely eat brown apples. .
How to Tell If an Apple Is Still Good to Eat?
First, make sure you understand what causes apples to go brown and rot.Mold, oxidation, fungi, light, heat and humidity all play a role.For example, when you cut an apple, the chemicals in its flesh are exposed to the oxygen in the air, which promotes the formation of polyphenol oxidase, an enzyme that causes the fruit to turn brown.Some types of mold can develop in the refrigerator, which is why it's important to clean your fridge regularly and keep fresh or cut fruits covered in plastic wrap.Patulin, which is produced by the Penicillium expansum species, typically affects apples and their juice as well as other fruits, such as pears and grapes.The apple is safe to eat as long as there are no signs of mold.However, it's best to avoid fruits with bruises, skin breaks and other signs of damage, as they are prone to mold.Make sure they have no signs of mold or holes caused by insects.These are all signs of rot, according to Ohio State University Extension.Since they release ethylene gas, they may cause other fruits and vegetables to rot.That's why the USDA recommends wrapping apples separately to keep them fresh for longer.Wrap them in plastic or paper bags and store them either in the fridge or in a cool, dark place. .
Would you eat a brown apple?
Have you ever cut up an apple to take for lunch, or prepared apples for a fresh fruit tray only to have them turn an unappealing shade of brown?In addition, there is much convenience in being able to eat one slice at a time, no matter where you are.A Canadian company has developed apples that won’t turn brown, which has the potential to solve this problem and get more people eating an apple a day.In this post, I’ll discuss the chemistry behind browning and the science behind non-browning fruits and vegetables.Just Google how to stop an apple from turning brown and you’ll get 2,770,000 results, including a pretty cool at-home apple browning experiment guide (pdf) by the Australian Institute of Food Science and Technology.Phenols are a whole category of compounds found naturally in a lot of foods.As for the details, we don’t have many.They have published a lot of papers about their efforts to use RNAi, though, which leads me to believe that the gene for the polyphenol oxidase enzyme was silenced in the non-browning apples with RNA interference – RNAi for short.RNAi can be used to change characteristics in existing plants, such as turning off the genes in onions that make you cry, turning off the genes in wheat that make gluten (great for people with celiacs disease!Of course, shutting off a gene can cause unintended effects.For example, a study by Cornell researchers in potato that used RNAi to reduce expression of polyphenol oxidase found that the plants also had reduced disease resistance (Thipyapong, 2004).An earlier study, also from Cornell, used a tuber specific promoter so the polyphenol oxidases were turned off only in the potatoes, not in the rest of the plant, and the researchers didn’t find any adverse affects on disease resistance or anything else (Bachem, 1994).We’ll just have to wait for that APHIS risk assessment for petition 10-161-01p to see the details of the non-browning apples, but we have a hint in the review Plant Regeneration and Transformation in the Rosaceae (pdf, Rosaceae is the family of plants that includes apples):.Which would you prefer – apples treated with chemicals or heat, apples bred to brown a little more slowly, or apples engineered to silence the enzyme that causes browning?Antisense Expression of Polyphenol Oxidase Genes Inhibits Enzymatic Browning in Potato Tubers Bio/Technology, 12 (11), 1101-1105 DOI: 10.1038/nbt1194-1101.Why Do Cut Apples Turn Brown?Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, 54 (26), 9882-7 PMID: 17177515.* If anyone from Okanagan Specialty Fruits reads this, it would probably be useful to have a little more info on your website. .
How to Store Apples (And Keep Them Fresh)
—Suzy Horvath, Milwaukie, Oregon Go to Recipe A hint of apple flavor gives a slightly sweet spin to a holiday dinner’s main event.I'm sure your family will be delighted with it, too.Serve it as a dessert or a very special breakfast treat.I'm sure your family will be delighted with it, too.Serve it as a dessert or a very special breakfast treat.They’ve been sharing the recipe for more than 150 years.—Amy Kirchen, Loveland, Ohio Go to Recipe My husband’s German family calls this, which translates to "Grandma’s apple cake.".They’ve been sharing the recipe for more than 150 years.Cranberry Apple Stuffing One Thanksgiving, I lost the recipe I planned to use, so I threw this cranberry stuffing together.Taste of Home Banana Applesauce The recipe has evolved for the many years we have made it.This version has been a favorite at our Christmas dinners.—Judy Batson, Tampa, Florida Go to Recipe The recipe has evolved for the many years we have made it.It’s not too sweet, and it makes a perfect side for turkey or ham.It’s not too sweet, and it makes a perfect side for turkey or ham.—Christine Wendland, Browns Mills, New Jersey Go to Recipe Who knew sage and apple cider would create such a fantastic bread?Pumpkin and Chicken Sausage Hash This can be served as a side or as the main dish for breakfast, lunch or dinner.—Valerie Donn, Williamsburg, Michigan Go to Recipe This can be served as a side or as the main dish for breakfast, lunch or dinner.—Marjorie Benson, New Castle, Pennsylvania Go to Recipe These apple peanut butter cookies are great for fall gatherings.Taste of Home Baked Apple Slices Nothing beats these tender baked apple slices over ice cream for satisfying harvest flavor.This old-fashioned treat gives a new twist to traditional baked apples.This old-fashioned treat gives a new twist to traditional baked apples.This comforting entree is my family's most requested pork dish.—Gloria Bradley, Naperville, Illinois Go to Recipe My roasted pork tenderloin is stuffed with two of our favorite ingredients: walnuts and apples.This comforting entree is my family's most requested pork dish.—Teri Rasey, Cadillac, Michigan Go to Recipe I had apples and ricotta cheese to use up, so instead of making a pie I decided to do something different.Apple Spice Cake with Brown Sugar Frosting I am a healthy eater most of the time, but this apple spice cake is worth the splurge!You can add a cup of raisins to the batter before baking if you'd like.You can add a cup of raisins to the batter before baking if you'd like.I enjoy this, and it's so easy to make.I enjoy this, and it's so easy to make.—Sue Gronholz, Beaver Dam, Wisconsin Go to Recipe I frequently cook Sunday brunch for my husband and myself, and I am always experimenting with new recipes.In an effort to practice my baking, I use up the morning's last bit of coffee to make this cake—literally.In an effort to practice my baking, I use up the morning's last bit of coffee to make this cake—literally.—Brenda Crouch, Ansley, Nebraska Go to Recipe I'd heard about using squash in dressing, so I combined four things I love into one dish: apples, butternut squash, bacon and maple sausage!Taste of Home Apple Cranberry Upside-Down Cakes Cornmeal gives this upside-down cake a unique texture.Taste of Home Cranberry Apple Crisp Apple cranberry crisp is a wonderful dessert for fall, when both cranberries and apples are in season.—Martha Sue Stroud, Clarksville, Texas Go to Recipe Apple cranberry crisp is a wonderful dessert for fall, when both cranberries and apples are in season.They're a quick and easy dessert that includes a scrumptious brown butter glaze!They're a quick and easy dessert that includes a scrumptious brown butter glaze!Autumn Pork Roast Although this main meal captures the fabulous flavor of fall, don't hesitate to serve it throughout the year.German Apple Pancake If you're looking for a pretty dish to make when having guests for brunch, try this.Taste of Home Winning Apple Crisp I live in apple country, and a delicious crisp is one good way to use them that doesn't take a lot of time.—Gertrude Bartnick, Portage, Wisconsin Go to Recipe I live in apple country, and a delicious crisp is one good way to use them that doesn't take a lot of time.Apple Kolaches A fellow home cook shared this recipe for a sweet, fruit-filled pastry.—Ann Johnson, Evansville, Indiana Go to Recipe A fellow home cook shared this recipe for a sweet, fruit-filled pastry.Plus, it's sweet enough to be a dessert.Plus, it's sweet enough to be a dessert.They are so easy to make and the flavor just screams fall.Of course, they're just as delicious any other time of year.They are so easy to make and the flavor just screams fall.Of course, they're just as delicious any other time of year.Taste of Home Acorn Squash with Cranberry Stuffing If you have squash or cranberry lovers at the table, here’s your new go-to recipe.I take time off from work around the holidays to fill pie requests from family and friends.I take time off from work around the holidays to fill pie requests from family and friends.Bite-Sized Apple Pies These little bites are fun for kids to make.Taste of Home All-Day Apple Butter I make several batches of this simple and delicious homemade apple butter recipe to freeze in jars.—Betty Ruenholl, Syracuse, Nebraska Go to Recipe I make several batches of this simple and delicious homemade apple butter recipe to freeze in jars.Share a batch with friends and family who appreciate a hot, fresh apple cider doughnut.Share a batch with friends and family who appreciate a hot, fresh apple cider doughnut.—Stacia Slagle of Maysville, Missouri Go to Recipe My sister came up with an easy recipe that can be served as a main course or an appetizer.—Sue Gronholz, Beaver Dam, Wisconsin Go to Recipe Because cheese and sage go so well with apples, I decided to put them all in scones.If you want to learn how to make homemade apple pie filling, this is really the only recipe you need.If you want to learn how to make homemade apple pie filling, this is really the only recipe you need.Cinnamon-Apple Pork Chops When I found these pork chops and apples recipe online years ago, it quickly became a favorite.—Christina Price, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania Go to Recipe When I found these pork chops and apples recipe online years ago, it quickly became a favorite.What a convenience it is to have jars of homemade freezer apple pie filling on hand so I can treat them to pies year-round.What a convenience it is to have jars of homemade freezer apple pie filling on hand so I can treat them to pies year-round.—Joan Buehnerkemper, Teutopolis, Illinois Go to Recipe I dressed up an angel food cake mix with some nuts, spice and applesauce to make an easy and light dessert.—Ellie Klopping, Toledo, Ohio Go to Recipe Even those who aren't fans of squash enjoy this side dish.I like to make a double batch and pass on the love!I like to make a double batch and pass on the love!Maple Cran-Apple Breakfast Pizza When hosting overnight guests, I like to start their day with a giant surprise – a breakfast pizza with apples, sausage and cranberries.—Marybeth Mank, Mesquite, TX Go to Recipe When hosting overnight guests, I like to start their day with a giant surprise – a breakfast pizza with apples, sausage and cranberries.It’s warm, filling and always a hit when I serve it to guests.Go to Recipe This is my husband’s favorite breakfast treat and the ultimate comfort food.It’s warm, filling and always a hit when I serve it to guests.-Marlene Clark Apple Valley, California Go to Recipe A friend of mine shared this recipe with me after I raved about the delightful salad at dinner.Potluck German Apple Cake My mother made this German apple cake for my brothers and me when we were kids.Contest-Winning Caramel Apple Crisp When my kids and I make apple crisp, we use all sorts of apples to boost the flavor and texture.—Michelle Brooks, Clarkston, Michigan Go to Recipe When my kids and I make apple crisp, we use all sorts of apples to boost the flavor and texture.—Sharon Richardson, Dallas, Texas Go to Recipe Weekend brunches are a big deal here in Texas, and these sweet, well-spiced pancakes make any breakfast special.Taste of Home Golden Harvest Apple Pie You'll think Grandma was baking in the kitchen when you taste your first bite of this old-fashioned pie.The golden, tender crust holds a yummy apple filling with a hint of orange.—Drew Menne, Vineyard Haven, Massachusetts Go to Recipe You'll think Grandma was baking in the kitchen when you taste your first bite of this old-fashioned pie.—Florence Palmer, Marshall, Illinois Go to Recipe This apple brown betty can be whipped up in hardly any time.Taste of Home Apple Pear Coffee Cake A friend gave me this apple pear coffee cake recipe to make for a breakfast I was hosting.Apple Cranberry Slab Pie My husband loves pie, so I made one with apples, raspberries and cranberries.—Brenda Smith, Curran, Michigan Go to Recipe My husband loves pie, so I made one with apples, raspberries and cranberries.It makes the perfect side, especially with pork chops or a pork roast.It makes the perfect side, especially with pork chops or a pork roast. .
Opal Apples Never Brown—But Are They Safe to Eat?
Believe it or not, Opal apples are actually very similar to other kinds of apples.Apple slices turn brown because enzymes called polyphenol oxidase (PPO) in the fruit’s flesh react with oxygen in the air.Although FirstFruits Marketing does not publish nutrition facts for the Opal apples (nor is it required to), the yellow apple’s nutrition value should be similar, if not the same, to every other apple at the supermarket.Even though there’s no published data on Opal apples and their antioxidant content, it’s safe to assume that, much like their apple cousins, their white flesh is still a good source of chlorogenic acid, the only antioxidant that’s found in greater concentrations inside the fruit instead of on the peel.For tested apple varieties, the flesh still contained about 84 percent of the fruit’s total antioxidant content on average. .
How Long Do Apples Last?
How long an apple lasts depends largely on when it was harvested, how it has been stored since that time, and whether it has been washed, cut, or cooked.Here are the approximate shelf lives of apples, depending on how they are prepared and stored (4): On the counter: 5–7 days.7–10 days in the fridge, 2 months in the freezer Cooked, as in the case of apple pie: 3–5 days in the fridge Summary The shelf life of apples varies from a few weeks to a few months, depending on how they are prepared and stored.Apples that have gone bad should be discarded.Risks of eating expired apples Although eating apples that are starting to age isn’t always dangerous, apples are subject to mold growth just like other fresh produce.Some microorganisms grow mycotoxins, which are responsible for many foodborne illnesses (5, 6 ).Apples are especially at risk of growing mycotoxins like patulin, which can be dangerous to consume.Here are a few things you can do to help keep your apples as fresh as possible: Do not wash your apples until you are ready to prepare and eat them ( 10 ).Store whole apples in the refrigerator crisper drawer instead of in the pantry or on the counter, as colder temperatures retain freshness longer ( 12 ).Submerge cut apple slices in a mixture comprising 1 teaspoon (5 ml) of lemon juice per 1 cup (240 ml) of water to slow the browning that occurs as part of the natural oxidation process ( 13 ). .
The Best Apples for Apple Pie
Would I rather eat apple pie, or pizza pie?Thing is, if you think that making an apple pie is as simple as picking any old apple up from the orchard or the supermarket, chopping it up, then tossing it with some sugar, cinnamon, perhaps a bit of cornstarch or flour to thicken up its juices, and baking it—well, then I can only assume that you've probably ended up baking a few bad pies in your lifetime.What Makes the Best Apple Pie?Apple pie should be sweet but never cloying, with a bare hint of cinnamon—this is an apple pie, after all, not a cinnamon pie.Some apples just don't make good pies.Color-Coding: How Browning in Apples Provides a Key to Texture.Some, like Granny Smith and Empire, were great at keeping their shape, resulting in the tender-but-firm chunks I look for in good apple pie.But Granny Smiths are too tart, and Empires are too sweet.On the other hand, even after several hours, Granny Smiths showed only a hint of browning.** What immediately struck me was that the least tart apple—the Red Delicious—was all the way at one end, while the most tart apple—the Granny Smith—was all the way at the other end.After arranging the baked pies in this same order and examining their fillings, turns out that this is indeed true.As you'll see in the photos below, the pies start off with very mushy fillings that get progressively firmer.Flavor: Very sweet and one-dimensional.Texture: Mealy flesh that turns to mush when cooked.Flavor: Sweet and mildly tart, with very white flesh.It holds up better than, say, Red Delicious in pies, but still turns quite brown and mushy.It becomes almost pear-like in flavor when it cooks.Best Uses: Pies, tarts, sauce, eating plain.Flavor: Very mild when eaten out of hand; not very sweet, but develops in flavor when cooked.Texture: Crisp flesh that stays good for a long time.When baked, it softens but retains a bit of texture.The best flavor I got out of any single apple—this is what apple pie should taste like.Flavor: Very sweet and very tart, with a good level of juiciness, it's a cross between a McIntosh and a Red Delicious and shows flavors from both.Texture: Despite its tender/grainy ancestry, its texture is quite firm and crunchy.When baked, it has nice texture, but becomes cloyingly sweet.Texture: Very thin-skinned, with a grainy texture.Now, some very astute readers might have noticed the one glaring exception here: Braeburns are low in acid, yet remain relatively firm as they bake.Braeburns are relatively dense apples, with not much air in between their cells."good texture alone does not a good pie make.".As you can see from my tasting notes, for the most part texture certainly does improve with more tartness, but good texture alone does not a good pie make.Say we combine some Granny Smiths with some Romes.Nope, a single apple would have to do it for me, and the best ones in the running are the Golden Delicious and the Braeburn.The question is, since both Golden Delicious and Braeburns have great, well-balanced flavor, but neither is quite firm enough when baked, is there something I can do to improve upon their texture?Are In-Season Apples Better?Apples for pies are one of them.Author's Note: This is the second of three Food Lab posts in a series about how to make the best apple pie, beginning with the basics of pie crust and ending with the right way to cook apple pie filling. .
Apples: Why Are Some Brown Inside (But look Good Outside)
Have you bought apples (especially Fuji) that look great and when you get them how and cut them open, you find they are brown or have brown spots inside?- but is brown inside.In this case, the most common problem is due to how the apples were handled in storage after being harvested.The disorder is associated with later harvested, large, and overmature fruit and with CO2 concentrations in storage.Empire and McIntosh apples and presumably, Fuji, are susceptible when they are stored for too long in cold temperatures.U of Maine says that it occurs more frequently when the apples are harvested late (for the variety) and a storage compound, 1-MCP, is used.Soggy breakdown is an internal chilling injury that develops when susceptible varieties of apple are stored at a temperature below their tolerance.In Honeycrisp, it often co-occurs with soft scald.Conditioning the fruit before placement in cold storage does not consistently prevent soggy breakdown and in some cases, can make it more severe.See this page for a time lapse set of photos showing how an apple slice browns once cut.The apple maggot leaves the apple (so you won't find one inside, just the brown damaged flesh).There are also brown spots inside the apple's flesh.Another chilling disorder that affects Honeycrisp, Golden Delicious and McIntosh apples when they are stored at temperatures below their tolerance.This damage DOES affect the outside, causing visible browning when certain apple varieties are stored longer than three months in cold storage.This is simply due to the apple being too old, stored for too long.All varieties will eventually develop senescent breakdown if stored long enough.What can you do with browned apples?If the apples look ok when you cut them, and start to brown only after being cut; they're fine - THAT IS NORMAL!But for the apples that are brown inside when you cut them open, there's not much you can do. .